The National Innovation Index Report 2021 is the 11th edition of the series. Drawing upon domestic and international theories and methods of evaluation of national competitiveness and innovation capacity, the report is based on an indicator matrix comprising five pillars, i.e. innovation resources, knowledge creation, enterprise innovation, innovation performance, and innovation environment. The National Innovation Index consists of five first-level indicators and 30 second-level indicators. This report continues to feature 40 countries with active STI activities (whose combined R&D expenditure accounts for more than 95% of the world), and continues to calculate the National Innovation Index through the benchmarking method commonly used worldwide. All data are obtained from the databases and publications of governments or international organizations and therefore internationally comparable and authoritative.